Resistant starch can effectively replace flour in foods like muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry to boost the fiber content without affecting the sensory characteristics, says a new study from Texas Woman’s University.
Using Ingredion’s Hi-Maize, the researchers found that muffins that incorporated the resistant starch were fluffier than control muffins and overall consumer likeability increased by 12%, according to findings published in Food Science & Nutrition .
In addition, the resistant starch containing focaccia bread was deemed to be more likeable than the control bread, while chicken curry equally as well as the control.
Starches can be divided into three groups: rapidly digestible starch (RDS, digested within 20 minutes), slowly digestible starch (SDS, digested between 20 and 120 minutes), and resistant starch (RS). The latter is not digested but is fermented in the large intestine and has 'prebiotic' properties.
Resistant starch can be found naturally in cold cooked potatoes, pasta and rice as well as baked beans and lentils.
Commenting on the practical implications of the study, the researchers said: “This study shows that high-amylose maize can completely or partially replace all-purpose flour in foods prepared commercially or in the home without significantly altering most sensory characteristics.
“The functional ingredient high-amylose maize resistant starch can be used to increase dietary fiber content of certain foods with minimal impact on sensory characteristics.”
Rhonda Witwer, senior business development manager at Ingredion, welcomed the study’s findings as “particularly timely because Hi-Maize resistant starch delivers benefits that consumers really want and need.”
“Published clinical studies have shown that Hi-Maize boosts satiety and helps people to eat less, reduces the glycemic response of foods, helps balance energy levels, and improves insulin sensitivity.
“Because Hi-Maize resistant starch invisibly replaces flour in foods, manufacturers can improve the nutritional profile of their foods while maintaining the great taste and textures that their customers know and love,” she added.
Led by Shanil Juma, PhD, and Parakat Vijayagopal, PhD, the Texas-based researchers formulated control muffins, focaccia bread and chicken curry or the same foods with 3.2 g of resistant starch/113 g medium-sized muffin, 13.1 g of resistant starch/100 g of bread, and 8.8 g of resistant starch per serving of chicken curry. Over 30 healthy men and women tasted each of the foods.
“The partial replacement of flour with Hi-Maize resistant starch in muffins enhanced the sensory characteristics without affecting overall likeability,” wrote the researchers.
“Results from this research can be extrapolated to food items prepared commercially or in the home that may be enriched with Hi-Maize resistant starch.
“Overall, the addition of Hi-Maize resistant starch in foods may not significantly alter consumer’s likeability and can be added as a functional fiber to promote physiological health-related benefits.”
Source: Food Science & Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/fsn3.15
“Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products”
Authors: M. Maziarz, M. Sherrard, S. Juma, C. Prasad, V. Imrhan, P. Vijayagopal