The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggested that more thorough testing of different varieties of quinoa is necessary to ensure their suitability for those with celiac disease, after researchers found two of 15 varieties contained levels of celiac-toxic elements sufficient to cause an allergic response in a minority of gluten-sensitive people.
The researchers tested 15 different quinoa varieties, and four samples triggered some antibody reaction, although all had levels of gluten epitopes that were below the 20mg per kg suggested for foods that can be labeled as gluten-free.
“The current study highlights the importance of examining different cultivars as part of a comprehensive safety assessment of novel gluten-free products,” they wrote.
They stressed that most of the quinoa cultivars tested did not contain quantifiable celiac-toxic elements, and further research in celiac patients was necessary, rather than duodenal biopsy samples – as used in this research –to determine whether certain varieties of quinoa could elicit an allergic response in some individuals.
“Generally, quinoa is safe for patients with CD [celiac disease],” they concluded. “However, we observed large variability in the immune effects of protein, depending on the cultivar tested, as occurs in oats.”
More work is needed “to confirm the suitability of quinoa for patients with CD and to facilitate its full incorporation in the gluten-free market,” they wrote.
Quinoa is one of a handful of grains and grain-like seeds that is often recommended as an alternative to gluten-containing grains for those following a strict gluten-free diet. Native to South America and high in protein and a range of minerals, it may be an important source of certain nutrients for many celiac patients.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with symptoms caused by consumption of gluten, the protein found in wheat, barley, rye and spelt. The only treatment currently available is complete avoidance of dietary gluten.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
First published ahead of print July 3, 2012 as doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030684
“Variable activation of immune response by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) prolamins in celiac disease”
Authors: Victor F Zevallos, H Julia Ellis, Tanja _Suligoj, L Irene Herencia, and Paul J Ciclitira