A huge sense of uncertainty has ‘soured’ the cage-free egg market, says Urner Barry

By Elaine Watson

- Last updated on GMT

A huge sense of uncertainty has ‘soured’ the cage-free egg market, says Urner Barry

Related tags Eggs Egg

While many of the nation’s biggest food retailers have pledged to use only cage-free eggs by 2025, consumer interest has waned as prices of caged eggs have fallen, creating continued uncertainty in the market, says commodity market researcher Urner Barry.

Market reporter Brian Moscogiuri was speaking to FoodNavigator-USA after egg producer Rose Acre Farms told Bloomberg​ it was “shutting our ​[cage-free] construction program down,” ​and Cal-Maine Foods CEO Dolph Baker said the company would be "adjusting" ​its cage-free egg production capacity to reflect reduced demand.

As United Egg Producers (UEP) told this publication in April​,​ while leading retailers have pledged to go cage-free by 2025, they are not necessarily willing to pay extra now​ to help suppliers fund the costs of transitioning to cage-free production systems given that consumer demand is far weaker than had been anticipated, said Moscogiuri.

According to USDA, said Moscogiuri, we’ll need an estimated 173m cage-free layers to service demand for US grocery retailers that have made commitments, 27.6m for restaurant chains, 12.7m for foodservice and 8.1m for food manufacturers by 2025.

Producers can’t just snap their fingers in 2024 and switch millions of birds to cage free

As of October 1, 2017,​ he said, we have 47.8m cage-free layers (this includes organic layers) out of 312.4m (around 15% of production), and to convert another 173m+ will take time and money that producers are not willing to spend now if customer demand isn’t there yet.

 “Producers can’t just snap their fingers in 2024 and suddenly switch millions of birds to cage-free housing, so there’s a huge sense of uncertainty that’s soured the entire market for the last year or more,” ​said Moscogiuri.

“People thought they knew what the path was, and some were forging ahead towards cage free, but now they are back to being uncertain about demand and even what the specifications for cage free will be in 2025.

“A couple of years ago generic egg prices were shooting through the roof because of avian flu, and as the gap between generic and specialty eggs prices closed dramatically, a lot of consumers were trading up. Retailers saw a big spike in their specialty egg sales at the same time as animal welfare groups were pressuring them to make commitments to cage free, so it seemed to make sense at the time.

“But I think perhaps they thought it was the consumer ​[interest in cage-free] that was driving sales, when really it was mainly because the price differential between generic and specialty eggs had ​[temporarily] closed up.

“But now, generic egg prices are way down again, wholesale prices have hit decade-lows and consumers are shifting back towards generic eggs because they are so much cheaper ​[than cage-free].”

Dolph Baker, CEO, Cal-Maine Foods

Our largest customers have made public commitments to transition away from conventional eggs and exclusively offer cage-free eggs by future specified dates. However, the higher price gap between conventional eggs and specialty eggs has resulted in reduced demand for specialty eggs. We have adjusted our production levels in line with current customer demand for cage-free eggs, and we are well positioned to increase our capacity when demand trends change..​.”

Dolph Baker, CEO, Cal-Maine Foods, Oct 2, 2017 (Q1, 2018 earnings statement)

It’s a game of wait and see

Aggressive restocking after the 2015 avian flu outbreak meant that we “ended up with more birds after the flu than we had prior, and coupled with reduced demand, the market has hit record lows and the price differential between generic and specialty eggs is even wider than it was before the flu,” ​he claimed.

“And some of these retailers that have really pushed cage free have seen sales go down significantly, not only in the egg section but also in overall store traffic as consumers are going to other stores where eggs and other staple items are being priced more aggressively.”

So what happens next?

It’s “hard to say what will happen next,” ​he said. “We’re seeing producers pulling back, slowing down cage-free conversion plans and playing wait and see.”

Eggland’s Best: There is always a balancing act in the egg business

Charlie Lanktree, CEO and president at New Jersey-based Eggland’s Best Eggs, which has generated steady double digit sales growth in recent years for its nutritionally enhanced branded eggs, told FoodNavigator-USA: “Everyone put in cage free facilities and now they can’t sell the products because they are too expensive.

egglands best charlie
Charlie Lanktree: “There is always a balancing act in the egg business..."

“There is always a balancing act in the egg business, but for the last year and a half producers have been under tremendous pressure. Market prices have gone as high as $2.88 a dozen and as low as 52 cents, so some of the ​[cage-free] building programs have slowed down or stopped. When one retailer is selling eggs for a few cents and another is selling only cage free for $2.99, it’s a tough situation.

“And then you’ve got people questioning whether cage free is as good for the birds as people think? At Eggland’s Best, we just say that our brand is the best possible brand because it is healthier and fresher, whether it’s classic (caged), cage-free, or organic. We offer all of these options.”

Snack time: Peeled eggs are a much better option than a candy bar

Eggland’s Best branded eggs, which first hit the market in 1992, are produced and distributed by a franchise network of established egg producers in 32 states who agree to feed a proportion of their hens proprietary animal by-product-free feed (grains, canola oil, rice bran, alfalfa, kelp, vitamin E) in accordance with a US patent entitled ‘Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same.’​  ​  ​ 

The Eggland’s Best branded eggs they produce have significantly higher levels of vitamin E, D, B2 and B12, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids (mainly ALA and DHA) and iodine, more folate and lutein, and 25% less saturated fat than regular eggs. They also stay fresher longer, said Lanktree.

eggland peeled

“We’re close to $900m in retail sales if you look at IRI or Nielsen data, and we had 19 years of double digit unit growth in a row. Over the last year or so with generic egg prices going way down it’s been tougher for us, but we’re still doing great. We’re also introducing new products like hard cooked peeled Eggland’s Best eggs in two packs and deviled eggs, new ways to make eggs more convenient.

“If it’s 3pm in the afternoon and you need a pick me up – peeled eggs are a much better option than a candy bar – they are so nutrient dense and a cheap source of high quality​ [complete] protein.”


According to USDA figures collated by the American Egg Board​​,​ US per capita egg consumption is on a steady upward trajectory, with blips in 2007-9 (during the recession) and 2015 (when bird flu decimated parts of the industry):

  • 2011: ​250.0
  • 2012: ​254.2
  • 2013: ​258.6
  • 2014: ​266.6
  • 2015: ​252.9
  • 2016: ​267.4
  • 2017: ​274.6

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The World Needs a Humane Economy

Posted by Tozie Zokufa,

Those organisations/producers that are back-peddling would find themselves in a tricky situation come 2025 and beyond. As much as consumers vote with their wallets, many producers will be embracing a humane production system, ensuring that prices for cage-free eggs go down and therefore, can be bought by the majority of consumers. Also, a 'wait and see' approach would prove to be not a good strategy, and the leaders in higher welfare systems would increase their market share and brand positioning.

WIth many countries reviewing their legislation and the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) looking at layer hen standards, it would be absurd for industry/producers to go the opposite direction. That is a path that doesn't afford laying hens one of the fundamental five freedoms, i.e. freedom to express normal behaviour by caging them.

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All Money, No Morals = The Egg Industry

Posted by Karen Davis,

If the egg industry is even slightly committed to the "welfare" of the hens, it will make every effort to ensure that, at the very least, these poor birds are not condemned to being caged in a building filled with nothing but cages and suffering cage mates. There is no method of mass producing hens or any living creatures "humanely," no way to bring comfort and joy to their lives. At the very least, however, this industry, as long as it continues to exist (alas), should eliminate the cages. Meanwhile, we animal rights advocates will campaign for a cage-free world in which the henitentiary is as obsolete as institutionalized human slavery and other shameful forms of human atrocity.

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At the very least, consumers want cage-free eggs

Posted by Sonia,

I am wondering if the larger retailers are seeing a change in purchasing patterns not due to consumers not willing to pay a premium for cage-free/free range/pastured eggs but because smaller independent outlets offer more transparency? Perhaps these retailers are seeing a reduction in sales not due to lack of consumer demand but lack of consumer trust in the claims that are offered without transparency.

It would be foolhardy for a producer to invest in more cages when globally consumers are becoming more aware and therefore more concerned in how our food is being produced - particularly with caged systems.

We all know that caged systems are due to higher profit margins, what are the profit margins of the retail outlets? Instead of back peddling, producers and particularly retailers should be discussing solutions on how to provide consumers with want they want - cage free for the their own health and the health of the planet. More and more consumers are understanding the true cost of food and the smart producers are willing to change their methods of production to meet these demands.

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