We’re not trying to hide the fact that we’re using genetic engineering

Arctic Apples creator Neal Carter: We really think this will be a game changer

By Elaine Watson contact

- Last updated on GMT

Neal Carter: ‘The claim that we might inadvertently clobber other genes in Arctic apples is completely false’
Neal Carter: ‘The claim that we might inadvertently clobber other genes in Arctic apples is completely false’

Related tags: Apple

While anti-GMO activists warn that the technology behind non-browning ‘Arctic apples’ is untested, unnecessary, and "dangerously imprecise", the grower behind them says he’s confident that the food industry and the American public will come to their own conclusions based on the facts.

Okanagan Specialty Fruit founder and president Neal Carter was speaking to FoodNavigator-USA after getting the green light from federal regulators (click HERE​), for his Arctic Granny Smith and Golden Delicious apples, which use gene silencing to limit production of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which causes browning.  

He added: “We really think this will be a game changer, particularly in foodservice ​[where operators often spray or dip sliced apples with ascorbic acid, citric acid, calcium salts, or a combination of the above; or use modified atmosphere packaging to reduce the oxygen to which the apples are exposed].”

"The cost savings will be significant, as the antioxidant treatment can account for between 30% and 40% of the cost of a bag of fresh cut apples."

Meanwhile, superficial damage caused during handling such as minor finger bruising, won’t show, which means perfectly good apples would not be thrown away unnecessarily, reducing food waste, he said, noting that Arctic apples also have the same nutritional content as their conventional counterparts.

Enzymatic browning and rotting/decomposition are two different things

However, he was keen to stress that “enzymatic browning – something that happens within minutes – is different from rotting, which is a process which comes much later, and is driven by mold and bacteria”.

In other words, Arctic apples rot like any other apples, and it’s actually easier to see when they are rotting (as opposed to bruised or browning), he claimed.

“So to say that ‘without natural browning, apples may look fresh when they are actually decaying​” [as Friends of the Earth claimed last week] is just completely false,” ​added Carter, a bioresource engineer who founded Okanagan Specialty Fruits with his wife Louisa in 1996.

“The opposite is true – it’s easier to tell if Arctic apples are decaying.”

arctic apples
Arctic apples produce less than 10% of the polyphenol oxidase (an enzyme which causes browning) of their conventional counterparts. A promoter derived from cauliflower mosaic virus initiates the Arctic apple transformation, while nopaline synthase terminates it; Agrobacterium tumefaciens aids the process.

The technology is incredibly precise, we’re not ‘accidentally’ impacting other genes

But what about fears – expressed by several critics including the Consumers Union - that the gene silencing process is “dangerously imprecise… and could unintentionally impact genes that affect other functions in the plant”?

According to Carter: “To create non-browning Arctic varieties, our low PPO-producing gene sequence – dubbed GEN-03 – is inserted into the parent cultivar’s DNA. A promoter and terminator gene sequence start and end that transformation process. It is a very targeted and specific gene modification that silences the PPO enzyme but does not change any other aspect of the cultivar.”

Meanwhile, the notion that this is all happening in a black box is simply not true, he added: “It’s incredibly precise, that’s the whole point of it, so to anyone that says we’ve inadvertently clobbered this gene or that gene, sorry but that’s completely false. “

Neal Carter in orchard
Neal Carter: “All we’ve done is reduce the expression of a single enzyme; there are no novel proteins in Arctic fruit and their nutrition and composition is equivalent to their conventional counterparts.”

Cross pollination risks in perspective

Asked to address concerns about cross-pollination, he said that for a start, “apple trees aren’t weedy​” (they don’t escape orchards to grow wild like some other crops can).  

Second, while apple blossoms are pollinated by bees, the likelihood of bees transporting pollen from an Arctic orchard to a different orchard is very low.

However, if a conventional/organic apple tree were​ to be pollinated by Arctic pollen, Arctic genes would only be present in some of the resulting apples’ seeds – not in the fruits’ skin or flesh, he said, pointing out that apple trees are produced by grafting, not from seeds, which are not typically eaten or planted.

But even if someone were to attempt to grow a tree using these seeds, the ‘Arctic’ non-browning trait wouldn’t be expressed, he said.  

osf-logo-color
Okanagan Specialty Fruits does not plan to grow large quantities of Arctic Apples itself. It will instead license its variety to commercial growers, charging them a one-time fee per acre of trees in the same way that growers currently pay for the right to produce patented varieties such as Gala or Fuji.

“If seeds of other apple varieties have some Arctic apple genetic material, it doesn’t mean that they will produce Arctic non-browning apples; that’s not how it works ​[eg. If a Gala tree is cross-pollinated by a Fuji tree, the Gala tree doesn’t produce Fuji apples].”

We’re not trying to hide the fact that we’re using genetic engineering

But what about the biggest concern raised by pretty much all of his critics, that this is about transparency, and that labeling the apples as ‘Arctic apples’ but not spelling out that they have been genetically engineered, is deceptive, and even suspicious, if there is nothing to hide?

Said Carter: “We’re not trying to hide the fact that we’re using genetic engineering, for a start it’s been all over the news and we are doing interviews and being very transparent and there is a huge amount of information on our website ​for anyone that has questions or concerns.

“But there is only so much room on apple stickers. People can add more information in bags or at point of sale if they wish. But having a sticker that just says GMO and nothing else just demonizes products and looks scary, and would just belittle the years of work we’ve put in.”

When it comes to GMOs, everybody has their own agenda

So how has the industry reacted to date? And what about claims that the apple growing industry is not exactly behind Arctic apples?

arctic apples label
Since it takes apple trees a number of years to produce significant amounts of fruit, it will likely be 2016 or 2017 before any Arctic apples are commercially available.

Said Carter: “We've had really positive feedback, especially from the foodservice industry. Initially the US Apple Association had concerns but today if you go to their website ​they are quite positive. The Northwest Horticultural Council is a different story, but we can live with that.”

It is incredible the bullshit that you hear about this technology

When it comes to the wider debate about GMOs, he said, the important thing is to recognize there is a conversation going on and to join it, rather than equivocating or burying your head in the sand.

“It is incredible the bullshit that you hear about this technology, but for the people that are against it, it’s a business for them, that’s how they make their living; everybody has their own agenda.

“But I also think the food industry has been very poor at educating people about genetic engineering and some of the big food companies have painted themselves into a corner on this issue. They reformulate one product ​[to go non-GMO] but don’t change the others, so they don’t please anyone, it costs a lot of money, there’s no benefit to the consumer, and they don’t gain any market share. You wonder did they do their homework.”

FoE: Farmers don’t want to grow it, food companies don’t want to sell it, and consumers don’t want to eat it

So how has the news of the deregulation been received?

Non-GMO activists at Just Label It, the Environmental Working Group, the Consumers Union,  the Center for Food Safety, and Friends of the Earth and immediately issued press releases outlining their concerns (which we put to Carter, above), with FoE Food and Technology program director Lisa Archer noting: “Farmers don’t want to grow it, food companies don’t want to sell it and consumers don’t want to eat it.”

(Click HERE​ to read FoE's comments in full.)

apple-comparison
Juice of Arctic Granny Smith apple (left), juice of conventional Granny Smith apple (right)

This product is completely unnecessary 

Meanwhile, Andrew Kimbrell, executive director for Center for Food Safety, said the pros simply outweighed the cons: “This product is completely unnecessary and poses numerous risks to apple growers, the food industry and consumers.”

Click HERE​ to read the CFS's full comments to USDA about Arctic apples.

However, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) issued a more positive statement, noting that, “Unlike most of the commercially approved genetically engineered crops, which provide benefits primarily to farmers, this product provides a modest benefit to consumers. It might make sense to use such a product for pre-sliced apple slices or in fruit salad or salad bars."

It added: “The developer still will complete its safety review at the FDA - a voluntary process that should be mandatory. But there’s no indication that this new apple presents an environmental concern, and it might demonstrate to consumers how, in time, other new products could provide even more impressive benefits, including to improve health.”

Click HERE​ to read full details about the risk assessment process that the Arctic apples went through and read the Q&A​ from USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

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2 comments

Excellent use of GE technology

Posted by Ken Dunkley,

I applaud the Carters' perseverance. Using GE technology to limit enzymatic browning is an excellent use of science to benefit consumers. Detractors are in the same realm as the anti-grafters of the past (see http://geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/02/10/the-original-frankenfoods/).

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Andrew Kimbrell is right

Posted by Mae Johns,

Browning of apples is an indicator that the food is not fresh. The enzymes that cause browning protect trees from disease, so these trees will most likely need more pesticides, just like all other GE crops. It was completely irresponsible to approve this "product".

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